Monday, June 02, 2008

Incidence of U. S. pediatric cancer varies with region and sex--Also Paternal age see below

General Health : Diseases Last Updated: Jun 2, 2008 - 8:48:32 AM


Incidence of U. S. pediatric cancer varies with region and sex
By Ben Wasserman
Jun 2, 2008 - 8:42:00 AM

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Monday June 2, 2008 ( -- Age, sex, race and region all make a difference in incidence of pediatric cancers in the United States, according to a new government study in the June, 2008 issue of Pediatrics.

White children (173 per million) had the highest incidence of all cancers while American Indians and Alaska Natives had the lowest. Children in the Northeast (179 per million) were most likely to be diagnosed with cancer than children in other regions of the country.

Boys were at higher risk of a pediatric malignancy (174 per million) than girls (157 per million) and those aged 15 to 19 (210 per million) had a slightly higher prevalence of cancer than children under 15 (151 per million).

The study was based on data from 39 National Program of Cancer Registries and five Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) databases involving 36,446 cases of childhood cancer from 2001 through 2003. The data represented more than 90 percent of the U.S. population.

Leukemia, central nervous system tumors and lymphomas are the three most common cancers found in children, accounting for 26 percent, 17.6 percent and 14.6 percent of pediatric cancers respectively. They accounted for about 60 percent of all childhood malignancies.

Boys were more susceptible to development of lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, osteosarcomas, hepatoblastoma and others while girls were more prone to kidney cancer, thyroid cancer and melanomas.

White children had the highest incidence of cancer at 173 per million compared to 118 for black children, 131 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 164 for Hispanics. The lowest incidence was found in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Northeast had the highest rate of pediatric cancer at 179 per million compared to 166 for the Midwest, 159 for the South and 165 for the West.

Dr. Jun Li, an epidemic intelligence office for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta and colleagues conducted the study.

It is unknown why there were the differences found in the study.

For more information on pediatric cancers, read


PEDIATRICS Vol. 121 No. 6 June 2008, pp. e1470-e1477
Cancer Incidence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2001–2003
Jun Li, MD, PhD, MPHa,b, Trevor D. Thompson, BSa, Jacqueline W. Miller, MDa, Lori A. Pollack, MD, MPHa and Sherri L. Stewart, PhDa
a Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
b Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Atlanta, Georgia

IJE Advance Access originally published online on September 28, 2006
International Journal of Epidemiology 2006 35(6):1495-1503; doi:10.1093/ije/dyl177

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2006; all rights reserved.



Parental age and risk of childhood cancers: a population-based cohort study from Sweden
Benjamin H Yip, Yudi Pawitan and Kamila Czene*
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

* Corresponding author. E-mail:


Background Frequent germ line cells mutations were previously demonstrated to be associated with aging. This suggests a higher incidence of childhood cancer among children of older parents. A population-based cohort study of parental ages and other prenatal risk factors for five main childhood cancers was performed with the use of a linkage between several national-based registries.

Methods In total, about 4.3 million children with their parents, born between 1961 and 2000, were included in the study. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to obtain the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Children <5 years of age and children 5–14 years of age were analysed independently.

Results There was no significant result for children 5–14 years of age. For children <5 years of age, maternal age were associated with elevated risk of retinoblastoma (oldest age group's IRR = 2.39, 95%CI = 1.17–4.85) and leukaemia (oldest age group's IRR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.01–2.05). Paternal age was significantly associated with leukaemia (oldest age group's IRR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.04–1.66). For central nervous system cancer, the effect of paternal age was found to be significant (oldest age group's IRR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.21–2.35) when maternal age was included in the analysis.

Conclusion Our findings indicate that advanced parental age might be associated with an increased risk of early childhood cancers.

Keywords childhood cancer, relative risk, paternal age, maternal age, incidence
Accepted 10 July 2006



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